How to diagnose and treat retinal diseases, Types, Symptoms and complications

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How to diagnose and treat retinal diseases

Types, Symptoms and Complications

How to diagnose and treat retinal diseases

The retina is one of the most sensitive areas in the human body. It is the lining membrane of the back of the eye. It contains light receptors that interact with the presence of light according to its degree of intensity by sending nerve impulses through the optic nerve to the brain which in turn translates the image we see.

Being visible at the fundus of the eye, It allows to explore some diseases such as high blood sugar (diabetes) and some brain tumors, and today we recognize the importance and what diseases that may affect them.

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What is the retina [definition retina]?

At the back of the eye, the retina, which consists of nerve tissue, thin blood vessels, and colored cells, is responsible for reprinting objects and images such as a negative film of photography. These images are then assembled and connected through the optic nerve to the brain to be translated. Any change in their tissues reflects the presence of a disease. Diabetes has certain manifestations that can be manifested in changes in the retina, as well as blood pressure and certain tumors.

What is Causing Retinal Diseases?

As we mentioned earlier that diabetes is a disease whose manifestations manifest in changes in the retina, but not only diabetes, and we lay out in the following paragraphs the most important diseases affecting the retina directly:

1 – How diabetes affects the retina

Diabetes has a major effect on the eye, because it directly affects the thin blood vessels that nourish the retina, causing clogged vision and the appearance of black spots and may lead to blindness completely if we lose control of blood sugar.
Therefore, in cases of retinal damage due to diabetes, diabetes should be controlled before treatment of retinal damage.

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2 – How kidney disease and blood pressure affect the retina?


In cases of chronic uncontrolled (silent killer) Hypertension or kidney failure, these diseases contribute to damage to the retina. Examining the retina, we may see a hardening of blood vessels, swelling and damage of retinal cells.

Main vein occlusion of the retina

if this obstruction occurs, the following results may occur:
1.sudden loss of vision
2. High eye pressure.
3. Failure of treatment may lead to eye removal.

Diseases affecting the retina


1. Obstruction of the main artery of the retina

This obstruction occurs when a clot, bleeding or stiffening of the main artery of the retina, which prevents food and oxygen from reaching the retinal tissue, which may cause damage to retinal tissue, and its causes can be limited to the following:

Causes of obstruction of the main artery of the retina
1. Hypertension
2. Diabetes
3. Some heart disease.
4. Infection with some diseases that cause disorders of the blood vessels.

Treatment of obstruction of the main artery of the retina
can be treated by surgical intervention to remove the clot but so far the results are unclear.

2. Retinal detachment (Retinal detachment)

Retinal detachment (retinal detachment) is a disorder in the retinal tissues where the layers and cells separate from each other, so the separation is of two types:

Primary retinal detachment

Symptoms of primary retinal detachment:

1. blurred vision.
2. Blind spots
3. Change in the sizes of visible objects.
4. Low eye pressure.
5. Very weak vision.
6. See the red color gray.

– Treatment of primary retinal detachment:

1. Cryotherapy is called cold-fixation
2. Install a piece of plastic in front of the rip locations and is called hard packing.

Secondary retinal detachment

Causes of secondary retinal detachment can be limited to:

1. The eye is exposed to infection internally or externally.
2. A patient may have had a cataract removal procedure.
3. Damage to the external glass body.
4. The appearance of choroid-retinal tumors.

Yellow spot disease

One of the unknown diseases, which may be caused by aging and can be treated by the removal of vitreous body, a process aimed at cleaning vitreous body ( posterior eye fluid), vision may be impaired for several weeks, but soon will return to normal again, and the success rate of the operation of 90:80% According to the latest statistics.

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